Jennifer Johnson, D.O.
Family Medicine, Prenatal Care
Speaking of HealthPreparing kids for a flu shot: Tips to help parentsOctober 12, 2022
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Nearly 28 million children in the U.S. are newly eligible to be protected by COVID-19 vaccination. The Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine in children 5‒15. COVID-19 vaccines have been used under the most intensive safety monitoring in U.S. history, including studies in children. The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine has been found to be safe and 91% effective in clinical trials for children 5‒11 and 100% effective in clinical trials in children 12‒15. The FDA has approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now called Comirnaty, to prevent COVID-19 in people age 16 and older.
Educate yourself so you know the facts and can help put your kids at ease. Start by talking about the amazing work your child's body does to stay healthy. Explain that your child's body is strong and does a great job of keeping him or her safe from germs.
Here are some tips in kid-friendly language for answering common questions your children may have about vaccines:
Why do I need vaccines?
When you get sick, you are given medicine to help you feel better. Vaccines are like medicine put into your body to keep you from getting sick in the first place. Vaccines are recommended throughout your life to help prevent you from getting illnesses. For example, you get a flu shot each year. These vaccines help protect people around you, especially grandparents and other family members with medical conditions.
How do vaccines work in the body?
Vaccines help your body build up the ability to fight off viruses. Vaccines may not stop you from getting viruses, but if you do get sick, the vaccine may keep you from becoming seriously ill or developing complications due to the illness. And that may be a lifesaving benefit of vaccines.
If I'm healthy, why do I need vaccines?
Even if you are healthy, you can't predict or know in advance if you will get sick. You also can't predict or know how severe the illness will be. Vaccines don't just protect you. They also protect your family, friends and community.
Why do most vaccines come in a shot?
Most vaccines are given as a shot because if you ate or drank them, your stomach would think they're food and digest them. When they are given as a shot, the medicine stays strong and helps your body keep germs from making you sick.
Sometimes — as with the Moderna and Pfizer COVID-19 vaccines — multiple doses are needed. The first shot will get your immune system producing some antibodies to fight off the virus, but a second shot is needed to get your body into full defense mode.
Are vaccines safe?
All vaccines must undergo intensive safety monitoring. The Food and Drug Administration has carefully reviewed all of the authorized and recommended vaccines. The FDA is responsible for reviewing all safety data from clinical trials to determine if the expected benefits of vaccination outweigh potential risks.
For your child, you could distill this as follows:
All possible measures have been taken to make sure that no harm will come to those who get vaccinated. Millions of people in the U.S. and around the world have received vaccines, including the COVID-19 vaccine. The delay in getting COVID-19 vaccines for younger children provides time for scientists and doctors to study the vaccine in kids your age.
Will I get sick from vaccines?
Some people will have side effects, but they are generally mild. These side effects are your body's way of responding to the vaccine and building up your immunity against viruses. It is common to experience some minor pain, redness and swelling on the arm where the shot was given, and tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever and nausea throughout the rest of the body. Some people have no side effects. If two doses are required, the side effects may be more intense after the second dose.
Could the vaccine make me unable to have children in the future?
There is no evidence that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems, which are problems trying to get pregnant.
If I am vaccinated for COVID-19 can I do X, Y and Z?
It takes your body a few weeks after you are vaccinated to build immunity, so it is still possible to get the virus. There still are many more people who need to be vaccinated, and this will take time. Be patient, wear a mask, wash your hands and continue to practice social distancing. But getting vaccinated is an important step in stopping the pandemic and returning to normal.
Why can't younger kids get vaccinated for COVID-19?
COVID-19 vaccines likely will be available to younger children in the future. Vaccine experts know vaccines work well for adult bodies and want to make sure it's the same for young kids.
Tips for teens on talking to peers about COVID-19 vaccines
It's likely that your teen has talked about COVID-19 vaccines with peers. Hesitancy to get vaccines can stem from fear and the unknown. Encourage your teen to learn the facts, using information from reputable resources, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Mayo Clinic and Mayo Clinic Health System.
Here are some facts about COVID-19 vaccines your teen can share and discuss, should he or she have peers who are hesitant to get vaccinated:
- Getting the COVID-19 vaccine can protect you from getting sick.
- Getting vaccinated for COVID-19 helps others in the community.
- More vaccinations for COVID-19 mean a change to return to normal.
- While the development of the COVID-19 vaccine happened quickly, it did not skip necessary safety steps.
- People of color are especially vulnerable to severe COVID-19.
- Clinical trials of the COVID-19 vaccine included assessing safety and effectiveness included people of various diversities.
- COVID-19 vaccine side effects are temporary and do not mean you're sick.
- If you have allergies, you can still get the COVID-19 vaccine.
- There is no evidence that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems.
- If you've already had COVID-19, getting vaccinated will add extra protection.
- The sooner you get vaccinated, the sooner you are protected.
- Vaccines can't save lives unless people get vaccinated.
Finally, reward and praise your child's bravery to get vaccinated, and continue to be open and honest with your child, so he or she knows to reach out to you with further questions or concerns.
Information in this post was accurate at the time of its posting. Due to the fluid nature of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientific understanding, along with guidelines and recommendations, may have changed since the original publication date.