Meniere’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that can lead to dizzy spells and hearing loss. In most cases, Meniere’s disease affects only one ear. Signs and symptoms of Meniere's disease include:
Feeling of fullness in the ear. People with Meniere's disease often feel pressure in an affected ear.
Hearing loss. Hearing loss in Meniere's disease may come and go, particularly early on. Eventually, most people have some permanent hearing loss.
Recurring episodes of vertigo. You have a spinning sensation that starts and stops spontaneously. Episodes of vertigo occur without warning and usually last 20 minutes to several hours. Severe vertigo can cause nausea.
Ringing in the ear (tinnitus). Tinnitus is the perception of a ringing, buzzing, roaring, whistling, or hissing sound in your ear.
The cause of Meniere's disease is unknown. Symptoms of Meniere's disease appear to be the result of an abnormal amount of fluid in the inner ear, but it isn't clear what causes that to happen.
Factors that affect the fluid, which might contribute to Meniere's disease, include:
Abnormal immune response
Improper fluid drainage, perhaps because of a blockage or anatomic abnormality
Because no single cause has been identified, it's likely that Meniere's disease results from a combination of factors.