Cancer Treatment Side Effects
Chemotherapy works by killing rapidly dividing cancer cells. As it wipes out cancer cells, though, chemotherapy can also destroy fast-growing healthy cells. This may cause you to experience side effects.
Lower blood cell production
Your bone marrow's ability to make blood cells might decrease.
- Anemia. You may not have enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to your tissues, which can leave you feeling tired or short of breath.
- Bleeding. You may not have enough platelets — a blood cell that plays an important role in forming blood clots — to help prevent bleeding when you're injured.
- Infections. You may make fewer white blood cells, which protect your body from infections. An elevated body temperature may be the earliest sign of an infection.
The lining of your stomach and intestines could become damaged.
- Diarrhea. Your body's ability to absorb nutrients from food and get rid of waste might be affected.
- Nausea and vomiting. Damage to your stomach and intestinal lining can also cause nausea and vomiting.
- Constipation. Though less common, constipation also can be a side effect of chemotherapy.
Skin and hair symptoms
Chemotherapy targets rapidly growing cells, including healthy cells in your hair and inside your mouth.
- Hair loss. This happens most often on the scalp but your eyebrows and eyelashes may thin, too. Fortunately, hair loss is almost always temporary. Learn how cold cap therapy can reduce hair loss in people undergoing chemotherapy treatments.
- Mouth sores. Damage to the cells in your mouth can create sores that make it difficult to eat and drink.
Sexual side effects
Chemotherapy drugs go through your bloodstream and can affect your whole body. That can cause symptoms such as fatigue. Feeling tired or having little energy is a common side effect of many types of chemotherapy.
Work with your health care team
Consider preparing a list of questions about side effects to ask your health care team so that you can get ready for chemotherapy. Here are some questions you can ask:
- What side effects are most common with the drugs I'm receiving?
- How do these compare with the side effects of other treatments?
- What can I do to prepare for these side effects?
- What can I do to decrease the chances that I'll have them?
- What side effects are dangerous and should prompt a call or visit to the clinic?
- May I call you anytime if I have these side effects?
- What phone number should I use?
After you start treatment, it's important to tell your health care team about all the side effects you experience. The earlier they know, the more likely they can prevent side effects from becoming more-serious problems.