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Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer that begins in the cells of the bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ in your lower abdomen that stores urine.
Bladder cancer most often begins in the cells (urothelial cells) lining the inside of your bladder. Urothelial cells also are found in your kidneys and the tubes (ureters) connecting the kidneys to the bladder.
Most bladder cancers are diagnosed at an early stage, when the cancer is highly treatable. But even early-stage bladder cancers can come back after successful treatment. For this reason, people with bladder cancer typically need follow-up tests for years after treatment to look for bladder cancer that recurs.
Bladder cancer signs and symptoms may include:
- Blood in urine (hematuria), which may cause urine to appear bright red or cola-colored
- Frequent urination
- Painful urination
- Back pain
Treatment options for bladder cancer depend on a number of factors, including the type, grade and stage of the cancer, which are taken into consideration along with your overall health and treatment preferences.